Northern Ag Network
Northern Ag Network
Northern Broadcasting System    Northern News Network    Northern Sports Network
Search This Site...
Search This Site...

When is it Too Late to Plant Wheat?

Wednesday, May 9, 2018/Categories: Popular Posts, General News, Today's Top 5, Grains

When is it Too Late to Plant Wheat?

By Jonathan Kleinjan, SDSU Extension Crop Production Associate

 

April of 2018 may go down as one of the coldest on record. Typically, spring fieldwork begins in South Dakota in early April or even March. This year it will most likely be the first week of May at the earliest in most areas of the state. Farmers have begun to consider switching acres away from small grains and into later-planted row crops such as corn or soybeans. One producer asked ‘When do I start losing yield?’ That can be a difficult question to answer definitively, as weather variations are such a large factor in the final yields of spring wheat.

 

Understanding Yields

Hard Red Spring wheat is one of the most tolerant crops to cold temperatures and frost events. Germination and growth will begin when the soil temperature reaches 40°F. It should be planted as early as possible since cooler weather from emergence to the early reproductive stages generally benefits tiller formation and the development of larger heads. Increased growth during the early season typically results in higher yields.

For example, a study in North Dakota showed that spring wheat planted on May 1st had six fewer days of growth from emergence to 6-leaf stage when compared to wheat planted on April 15th. The number of days was further reduced to eleven when planting was delayed until May 15th. Yield data related to this research suggests that wheat loses 1.5% of its yield potential every day after the optimum planting date. However, this can vary greatly from season to season.

 

Optimum Planting Dates

Optimum planting dates of course vary according to location but the generally agreed upon optimum range is from about April 1st through the 25th. Obviously, we’re already well past that but that doesn’t mean producers should start moving away from Spring Wheat.

It is recommended to increase seeding rates as planting date is delayed from the optimum date to compensate for the loss in tiller formation. The recommended minimum seeding rate for a normal planting date is 1.2 million pure live seeds per acre, although no-till producers may want to plant more. Seeding rates should be increased by 1% per day for each day planting is delayed. For example, if the optimum planting date is considered to be April 15th, and planting does not occur until May 10th, the seeding rate should be increased by 25% (1.2 million seeds/acre x 1.25 = 1.5 million seeds/acre). SDSU does not recommend planting more than 1.8 million seeds/acre.

 

The Bottom Line

If conditions are right, late planted crops can still produce strong yields. In 2015, the SDSU Extension spring wheat variety trial plots were planted on April 13th in Volga, SD and May 1st in Selby, SD. The average yield in Volga was 57 bu/acre and the average yield in Selby was 71 bu/acre.

The wild card in this situation is the weather in June and July. Wheat is highly susceptible to heat during pollination and grain fill. Prolonged exposure to daytime temperatures above 85-90°F and especially nighttime temperatures above 70-72°F during these growth stages can drastically reduce yields, especially if soil moisture levels are low. At present, the National Weather Service is calling for equal chances of above or below normal temperatures in the May-July timeframe. Decisions on weather risk are ultimately up to each individual producer.

 

Find more information by visit www.igrow.org

 

Print

Leave a comment

Name:
Email:
Comment:
Add comment

Name:
Email:
Subject:
Message:
x

Recent Ag News

FSA Offices to Reopen Temporarily

1/16/2019 12:50:00 PM
Certain FSA offices will temporarily reopen during normal business hours January 17, 18 and 22 with limited services. >> Read More
Article rating: No rating

Ranchers Struggle with American Prairie Reserve Wildlife Conference

1/14/2019 3:12:00 PM
Ranchers live with wildlife every day, and so they are generally skeptical of any stranger’s free advice, especially when that “expert” is not from their part of the world. >> Read More
Article rating: No rating

Poll: Consumers Want FDA to End Mislabeling of Fake Milks

1/14/2019 2:57:00 PM
New national survey data released Jan. 10 found that consumers – by a nearly three-to-one margin – want the U.S. Food & Drug Administration to enforce existing regulations and prohibit non-dairy beverage companies from using the term “milk” on their product labels. FDA is currently soliciting public comment regarding front-of-package dairy labeling regulations through Jan. 28. >> Read More
Article rating: No rating

Opinion: Wildlife Conference is an APR Sideshow

1/14/2019 2:54:00 PM
The American Prairie Reserve is presently engaged in a major publicity effort to advance its acceptance in the Lewistown area by supporting a conference to teach area landowners how to live with wildlife. >> Read More
Article rating: 2.3

New Grain Marketing Tool Available Using Historical Montana Wheat Basis

1/14/2019 10:29:00 AM

We always hear about the basis but how can you use it to make marketing decisions?

>> Read More
Article rating: No rating
RSS

Find Articles by Date

«January 2019»
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
56
81112
1517181920
21222324252627
28293031123
45678910